May 30, 2024

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Poland’s Top Imports 2023

5 min read

Wrocław, PolandPoland imported US$370.1 billion worth of products purchased from around the globe in 2023.That dollar amount results from a 50% acceleration in Polish spending compared to $246.7 billion in imports five years earlier in 2019.Year over year, the dollar value of Poland’s imports grew by 3.2% from $358.6 billion during 2022.Based on the average exchange rate for 2023, the Polish złoty declined by -9.5% against the US dollar since 2019 but rose 5.7% from 2022 to 2023. Poland’s weaker local currency compared to 2019 makes imports paid for in stronger US dollars relatively more expensive when converted starting from the Polish złoty.Domestically, Poland’s inflation rate averaged 11.99% for 2023 down from an average 14.359% in 2022.Poland’s Most Valuable Suppliers for Imported ProductsThe latest available country-specific data shows that 69.9% of products imported into Poland was furnished by exporters in: Germany (25.3% of the Polish total), mainland China (9.3%), Netherlands (6.7%), Italy (4.9%), Czech Republic (4.11%), Belgium (4.07%), France (3.8%), United States of America (2.7%), Spain (2.42%), South Korea (2.34%), Sweden (2.26%) and Slovakia (2.1%).From a continental perspective, almost three-quarters (74.2%) of Poland’s total imports by value was purchased from fellow European countries. Asian trade partners supplied 20.5% of the value for import products bought by Poland.Poland joined the European Union on May 1, 2004. Fellow EU members furnished two-thirds (66.6%) of all imports sold to Poland in 2023.Smaller percentages originated from North America (3%), Latin America (1.3%) excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, Africa (0.7%), then Oceania (0.2%) led by Australia and New Zealand.Given Poland’s population of 37.6 million people, its total $370.1 billion in 2023 imports translates to roughly $9,800 in yearly product demand from every person in the Central European country. That dollar metric lags the average $10,100 per capita one year earlier in 2022.The following product groups represent the highest dollar value in Poland’s import purchases during 2023. Also shown is the percentage share each product category represents in terms of overall imports into Poland.Electrical machinery, equipment: US$46 billion (12.4% of total imports)Machinery including computers: $45.3 billion (12.2%)Vehicles: $35.9 billion (9.7%)Mineral fuels including oil: $33.2 billion (9%)Plastics, plastic articles: $18.8 billion (5.1%)Iron, steel: $13.2 billion (3.6%)Pharmaceuticals: $11.3 billion (3.1%)Articles of iron or steel: $8.2 billion (2.2%)Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $8.1 billion (2.2%)Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $6.8 billion (1.8%)Poland’s top 10 imports generated over three-fifths (61.3%) of the overall value of Polish product purchases from other countries.Mineral fuels including oil recorded the strongest increase in cost among Poland’s top 10 import categories, up by 78.1% from 2022 to 2023.Polish spending on imported pharmaceuticals grew by 34.4% year over year.In second place were Poland’s international purchases of vehicles via a 25.9% advance since 2022.Other leading gainers were Polish imports of electrical machinery and equipment (up 25.9%), unknit and non-crocheted clothing and accessories (up 24.8%), then optical, technical and medical apparatus (up 24.8%).The severest declining product categories were Poland’s imports of the metals iron and steel (down -17.7% from 2022) and mineral fuels including oil (down -11.6%).Please note that the results listed above are at the 2-digit Harmonized Tariff System code level. Information below drills down at the more granular 4-digit level.At the more detailed 4-digit HTS code level, Poland’s 10 biggest imported products are crude oil (4.2% of Poland’s imported total), cars (4.1%), automobile parts or accessories (3.1%), processed petroleum oils (2.5%), medication mixes in dosage (1.9%), phone devices including smartphones (1.8%), computers including optical readers (1.3%), blood fractions including antisera (1.1%), electronic integrated circuits and microassemblies (1.1%), and turbo-jets (also 1.1%).Combined, those 10 leading import products amount to over one-fifth (22.1%) of the total value for all Polish imports.Poland’s Major Imports of Electrical ProductsIn 2023, Polish importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of electronic equipment including computers.Phone devices including smartphones: US$6.8 billion (up 126.4% from 2022)Integrated circuits/microassemblies: $3.9 billion (up 0.7%)Electric storage batteries: $3.5 billion (up 1.3%)Insulated wire/cable: $2.8 billion (up 4.7%)Electrical converters/power units: $2.4 billion (up 14.4%)Lower-voltage switches, fuses: $2.3 billion (up 4.7%)TV receivers/monitors/projectors: $2.2 billion (down -10.1%)Semiconductor devices “e.g. diodes, transistors, semiconductor-based transducers”; photosensitive … $1.9 billion (up 330.4%)Electric water heaters, hair dryers: $1.7 billion (down -4.4%)TV/radio/radar device parts: $1.5 billion (up 39.9%)Among these import subcategories, Polish purchases of solar power diodes or semi-conductors (up 330.4%), phone devices including smartphones (up 126.4%) then television, radio or radar device parts (up 39.9%) grew at the fastest pace from 2022 to 2023.These amounts and the percentage gains within parenthesis clearly show where the strongest demand lies for different types of imported electronics among Polish businesses and consumers.Poland’s Major Imports of Machinery ProductsIn 2023, Polish importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of machines including computers.Computers, optical readers: US$5 billion (down -5.8% from 2022)Turbo-jets: $3.9 billion (up 12.5%)Piston engine parts: $3.1 billion (up 37.2%)Computer parts, accessories: $2.19 billion (down -17.8%)Transmission shafts, gears, clutches: $2.18 billion (up 23.5%)Taps, valves, similar appliances: $1.94 billion (up 5.4%)Air or vacuum pumps: $1.92 billion (up 9.9%)Centrifuges, filters and purifiers: $1.89 billion (up 13.7%)Miscellaneous machinery: $1.54 billion (up 8%)Engines (diesel): $1.52 billion (up 84.5%)Among these import subcategories, Polish purchases of diesel engines (up 84.5%), piston engine parts (up 37.2%) then transmission shafts, gears and clutches (up 23.5%) grew at the fastest pace from 2022 to 2023.These amounts and the percentage gains within parenthesis clearly show where the strongest demand lies for different types of imported machinery among Polish businesses and consumers.Poland’s Major Imports of Vehicles and Related ProductsIn 2023, Polish importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of vehicles and related products.Cars: US$15.1 billion (up 31.7% from 2022)Automobile parts/accessories: $11.6 billion (up 28.7%)Tractors: $3 billion (up 217.3%)Trucks: $2.4 billion (up 11.9%)Trailers: $1.4 billion (up 5.8%)Armored vehicles, tanks: $660.6 million (up 239.1%)Motorcycle parts/accessories: $413.2 million (down -25.9%)Motorcycles: $317.8 million (up 4.3%)Automobile bodies: $258.5 million (down -37.6%)Special purpose vehicles: $197.3 million (down -0.1%)Among these import subcategories, Polish purchases of armored vehicles including tanks (up 239.1%), tractors (up 217.3%) then cars (up 31.7%) grew at the fastest pace from 2022 to 2023.These amounts and the percentage gains within parenthesis clearly show where the strongest demand lies for different types of imported vehicles among Polish businesses and consumers.Poland’s Major Imports of Mineral FuelsIn 2023, Polish importers spent the most on the following 10 subcategories of mineral fuels including oil.Crude oil: US$15.4 billion (down -7.4% from 2022)Processed petroleum oils: $9.3 billion (up 3.4%)Coal, solid fuels made from coal: $3.6 billion (down -36.5%)Electrical energy: $2.5 billion (down -27.2%)Petroleum gases: $1.5 billion (down -15.5%)Petroleum jelly, mineral waxes: $293.1 million (down -29.1%)Petroleum oil residues: $171.4 million (down -6.1%)Coal tar oils (high temperature distillation): $157.7 million (down -21.5%)Tar pitch, coke: $83.7 million (up 1.9%)Lignite: $56.3 million (up 31.1%)Among these import subcategories, Polish purchases of lignite (up 31.1%), processed petroleum oils (up 3.4%), then tar pitch or coke (up 1.9%) grew from 2022 to 2023.These amounts and the percentage gains within parenthesis clearly show where the strongest demand lies for different types of imported mineral fuels-related products among Polish businesses and consumers. See also Poland’s Top Trading Partners, Poland’s Top 10 Exports, Czech Republic’s Top Trading Partners and Germany’s Top Trading PartnersResearch Sources:Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Country Profiles, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on April 26, 2024International Monetary Fund, Exchange Rates selected indicators (Domestic Currency per U.S. dollar, period average). Accessed on April 26, 2024International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on April 26, 2024Wikipedia, Poland. Accessed on April 26, 2024

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